Monday, June 25, 2012

Code Switching and Code Mixing-Sociolinguistics Study

Code-Switching
Code-switching is changing event from one code to another. For example, at first someone uses Indonesian language, and then he/she switches into Javanese. This event manifests in switch of regional, social, style and register variants. In code-switching, the use of two or more languages is marked by:



    (a) Each language still supports its own functions based on the contexts;
    (b) Each language function is based on relevant situation with contexts change.


Internal Code-Switching
If the code-switching occurs among regional languages in one national language, or among dialects in one regional language, or among some styles in one dialect, it is called as Internal Code-switching.
External Code-Switching
If code-switching occurs among native language and foreign language is called as External Code-switching. Ex. “Ah this man Hotman got his organization to contribute a lot of money to the Armsterdamer fancy-fair. Ben jij naaar de optocht geweest?”

Influencing Factors of Code-switching
1.    Speaker (O1)
2.    Hearer (O2)
3.    The Presence of the Third Person (O3)
4.    Topic
5.    To arouse humorous feeling
6.    For prestige

Linguistic Convergence
The other features of code-mixing are that the language or variant elements that are inserted in other language have no more functions. These elements have united in the language they are inserted is called as Linguistic Convergence. Inner Code-mixing: originated from the native language with its all variations. Outer Code-mixing: originated from foreign language.

Code-Mixing
Code-Mixing: The use of two or more language by putting in/inserting linguistic elements in one language into other language consistently. In code-mixing, dependency features are marked by the relationship between the language role and function. If the speaker mixes his/her code/language, then it must be asked who the speaker is: his/her social background, level of education, religion, etc. A speaker who masters many languages will have chance to mix code more than the other speaker who only masters one or two languages.



The Factors Influencing Code-mixing
There are two types of factors influencing code-mixing:
(1)    Attitudinal(perilaku) type (seen from attitude background)
(2)    Linguistic type (seen from linguistic background)

Those two types are often dependent and overlap each other.

Some reasons to mix code
(a)    Role identification è parameter: social, registral, educational
(b)    Style identification è parameter: the language use
(c)    The desire to explain and interpret è parameter: the speaker’s attitude and relationship with other persons and the reverse.
So, code-mixing occurs when there is co-relationship between the role of (speaker), linguistic forms and language functions.

Examples
The use of Dutch language represents that the speaker is educated and “tempo doeloe” person.
The use of ‘krama inggil’ in Indonesia- Javanese language represents that the speaker is from royal family or “bangsawan” Etc.

Some Code-mixing Forms
  • Elements inserted in the from of words, example : in Indonesian language can be found “Mangka seringkali sok ada kata-kata seolah-olah bahasa daerah itu kurang penting”.
  • Elements inserted in the form of phrases, Example : in Indonesian language can be found “Nah, karena sudah kadhung apik sama dia ya tak teken".
  • Elements inserted in the form of busters, Example: Banyak klap malam harus ditutup, Hendaknya segera diadakan hutanisasi kembali.
  • Elements inserted in the form of reduplication, Example: Sudah waktunya kita menghindari backing-backingan dan klik-klikan.






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